".... Then God said, 'Let Us make man in Our image and likeness, to rule the fish in the sea,
the birds of heaven, the livestock, all of the earth, and all the creatures that move along the
ground.' So God created man in His own image, in the image of God He created him; male and female
he created them. God blessed them and said to them, 'Be fruitful and increase in number; fill
the earth and subdue it. Rule over the fish of the sea and the birds of heaven and every living
creature that moves along the ground.' ...."
[Genesis 1:26-28, mixture of NIV and New English translations]
Well, Adam and Eve partook of the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil, which must have
been a phenomenal mutagen: it directly changed their species to homo sapiens. From
Father in Heaven's point of view, the alternative must have been worse (and completely
unimaginable to us).
But the Word of God cannot return to Him void and powerless. After about six millenia
(or maybe a few more?), we (collectively) have fulfiled His command.
The Earth is our garden. Wilderness is an endangered environment. So,
how aesthetically and effectively are we gardening the Earth?
AIDS: Bane of blood transfusions, marital infidelity, and fidelity to those who do not reciprocate
UN Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic
XIII International AIDS Conference, 9-14 July 2000, Durban South Africa
Conventional Paradigm: AIDS is caused by a retrovirus dubbed HIV. If untreated, this
retrovirus normally provokes a strong antibody response (which is completely ineffective). The
virus targets white blood cells that turn on immune responses versus infectious disease. Immune
collapse results when the white blood cells that turn on immune responses are decimated; this
renders the victim vulnerable to the slightest infection, and also to several otherwise-rare
The latency time in chimpanzees (from an analog virus, SIV) appears to be longer than
their natural lifespan. This has been speculated (Sept. 2002) to be due to adaptation to
a massive pandemic.
[CNN: Sept. 24, 2002] Chimpanzees are about 95%-98.5% genetically
identical to humans, with somewhat more diversity in most loci. A number of loci related
to the immune system are very low-variation in chimpanzees, however. The same speculation
suggests a 90% kill rate at conventional-paradigm 2 million years ago.
Current optimal therapies [in First-World nations with phenomenal resources] can near-totally
suppress HIV, but do not permanently eradicate the virus from behind the blood-brain
barrier, or from semen. Much research is being devoted to creating an AIDS vaccine. AIDS is
incapable of long-term survival outside of the body. In particular, mosquitos
seem to digest the virus before they can spread it. [If only they'd do that for malaria....]
Viability of Conventional Paradigm: For the actual infection mode, symptoms, etc.:
excellent. I am not aware of any vaguely credible alternative hypotheses...regardless
of the conventional paradigm being a personal insult to South Africa's Mbeki.
The theoretical existence of an AIDS vaccine is problematic, the potential vaccine
heading into Phase III trials (Dec. 2000?) notwithstanding. Test trials of gene knockout SIV
vaccines indicate that removing the three most plausible genes (out of 9) results in a fully
infectious virus. Currently, the most promising technique may be a vaccine modeled after a
possibly-effective Ebola vaccine: immunization to RNA/DNA.
[AllAfrica, November 30 2001]: Seventeen years of effort in AIDS vaccine development has
produced seventy-seven candidates, of which only two have attained final clinical trials. The
first generation of attempts targeted the AIDS outer subunit gp120. One of these is
entering phase III trials: a transgenic canary pox virus (laced with gp120), that actually produces
measurable cellular immunity.
CJK alias "Mad Cow" disease: Natural law enforces the Torah on agriculture
Official Mad Cow Disease Homepage
Conventional Paradigm: This disease's pathogenesis is outside the conventional
paradigm. The methods used to document its pathology are molecular-biological, and are within
the conventional paradigm. Its effects are also within the conventional paradigm: CJK induces
dementia by physically destroying brain tissue, leaving sponge-like holes behind. This
eventually proves fatal.
Molecular-biological techniques have isolated the mechanism as an autocatalytic misfolding of
a probable copper-receptor protein in the endoplasmic reticulum of neurons. The misfolded
protein is functionally a prion [which is outside of the conventional paradigm], that is
not destroyed by conventional cooking, degraded by the Ph of the stomach, or degraded by
protease enyzmes. The misfolded protein can induce normal-form protein to misfold to its
configuration. If the misfolded protein completely blocks the neuron's endoplasmic reticulum,
the victimized cell soon entirely fills its entire endoplasmic reticulum, and dies from lack of
protein synthesis. B-lymphocytes try to remove the misfolded protein, and are somewhat
successful (concentrating it in the tonsils), but are eventually overwhelmed.
Molecular-biological techniques have also identified that the misfolded protein can induce
its autocatalytic misfolding reaction across species (it is quite possible for avians to pick
it up from afflicted mammalian flesh, and vice-versa. Chickens seem to be highly resistant.)
Note that one requirement for kosher meat is that the animals in question (cows, etc.) never
have eaten meat themselves....so kosher meat is automatically free of CJK.
In humans, mutant forms of the protein are resistant to CJK autocatalytic folding. Many
mutant forms, however, are reported by OMIM™ as causing significant problems intrinsically.
The mildest one in OMIM™ suggests some sort of genetic adaptation in a small town in
The corresponding disease in sheep is scrapie. It appears [Xinhua, July 17 2001] that the EU has
instituted a fairly aggressive testing paradigm (as of early 2000) that prohibits brain and bone marrow
in food preparations. [Whether the spinal cord is included is unclear...important, since the
prions do propagate there. This is relevant for subclinical (physically undetectable) instances
in animals. Clinical instances are supposed to be incinerated. Fortunately, mechanically
extracted beef and pork is required (in the U.S.) to be labeled as such. Turkey and chicken
are not so privileged, although it seems many manufacturers do so anyway.]
Viability of Conventional Paradigm: Other than the conventional paradigm's inability
to handle the pathogenesis method (prion), the conventional paradigm works excellently.
Atmospheric re-engineering: "Thermal inertia" manipulations (alias "greenhouse effect") and ozone equilibria constant tampering ("ozone hole")
U.S. EPA Climate Change site.
Art Bell's news summary relating to his book, "The Coming Global Superstorm".
U.S. National/Naval Ice Center: Sea Ice and Icebergs of Earth. Both
suspected to be a proxy to global warming...and potentially invalidating current weather simulations.
Conventional Paradigm: Adding carbon dioxide (CO2) increases the thermal
energy required to change the temperature of a given mass of air in the Earth's atmosphere.
Colloquially, I think of this as increasing the "thermal inertia" of the Earth's atmosphere.
This also reduces how much heat the Earth reradiates to space at a given surface temperature
(hence, the popular name "greenhouse effect"). This also has effects in the temperature
balance of the Earth's stratosphere and mesosphere, as well as the troposphere. One side effect
is that all conventional weather systems have more thermal energy stored in them.
Based on news stories clipped by MyCNN and NOAA PR statements on TV programming, three phase
shifts in the Earth's climate, plausibly induced by the above carbon dioxide boost, have
It is known (from laboratory studies) that chlorine and bromine that actually reach the ozone
layer can, after reduction by UV to their monoatomic form (and capture by ice crystal), partially catalyze the conversion of
ozone (O3) to oxygen (O2). This is not true catalysis; experimental data
suggests that one chlorine atom is only good for the reduction of about 5,000 ozone molecules.
The reduction ratio is 2 ozone molecules to 3 oxygen molecules.
- [MyCNN]: The first was between 1974 and 1975; it was detected at the Galapagos Islands,
and its primary visible effect was to manipulate the concentration of iron in the sea water
there. This affects the oceanic biosphere, because iron is the limiting factor on
- [MyCNN]: The University of Colorado's Professor William Gray, a hurricane forecasting
specialist, found that a phase shift invalidated his predictive model for the number of
hurricanes and severe hurricanes in the Atlantic for 1998 compared to prior years.
[He defines his model to be inaccurate if either is off by even one.] It appeared that
he was able to recalibrate his model for 1999.
- [NOAA]: Jan. 2000 - Mar. 2000 were, on average, the warmest such months in the weather
records for the U.S.
- [MyCNN]: Recently [Oct. 2000-Nov. 2000], the United Kingdom has been approaching rainfall
records set in the 1600's.
Ozone formation is mediated by UV-induced disassociation of oxygen into monoatomic oxygen, which
then binds to oxygen to form ozone. This is obviously limited by the availability of UV
radiation (sunlight), so some ozone thinning over the poles during their winter is to be
expected. It should be noted that a sufficiently thinned ozone layer permits UV-C to reach the
surface -- a highly energetic variant which most absorption-based sunscreens are not designed
However, the reports (since 1998) of thin-ozone layers over southern Chile triggering sunburn
in under 5 minutes, and nearly-immediate cataract formation (days rather than years) indicate
that the winter thinning over Antarctica is far more severe than at any time since the Spanish
colonization/conquest of Chile in the 1600's.
Viability of Conventional Paradigm: The conventional paradigm is a clearly incomplete
explanation. While all factors mentioned are theoretically relevant, popular media coverage is
consistently ignoring other relevant factors.
First of all, it is plausible that (as a species) we have stopped an ice age in its
tracks. Climate records suggest that an ice age was attempting to start circa 1500, but was
stalled by the side effects of the Renaissance and throughly shut down by the Industrial
Second, the carbon dioxide augmentation is affecting the ozone layer situation in at least
Third, most halogen-carbons are significantly more massive than either oxygen or nitrogen.
This makes their penetration to the ozone layer, from the tropopause, contraintuitive. [It is
possible, since diffusion is a random-walk phenomenon.]. Freon® and Halon® have a better
chance than many other man-made chemicals, since they are not significantly water soluble.
Fortunately, Freon® and Halon® are virtually biologically inert; this mitigates the hazards
of oceanic contamination.
- At least one U.S. NASA computer simulation [MyCNN, 1999 or 2000] has predicted that
this should decrease mesosphere temperatures -- and strengthen the "polar vortex", preventing
mixing of ozone-depleted air over the poles with UV-exposed air from more temperate latitudes.
This effect (which is qualitatively predictable by analogizing relative differences of
the winter versus summer temperature behavior at those altitudes) would tend to amplify the
natural ozone-reduction during winter, even without chemical manipulations.
- This factor may not be measurable; it's an interesting exercise in inorganic chemistry,
though. Recall that at a given temperature and pressure, a given number of molecules of air
will occupy about the same volume. The ozone-oxygen conversion chemical system results in UV
radiation reducing the molecule count in the ozone layer (each conversion of 3 oxygen molecules
to 2 ozone molecules reduces the molecule count by 1), and natural decay+chemical assistance
resulting in the increase of molecule count in the ozone layer (2 ozone molecules to 3 oxygen
molecules increases the molecule count by 1). This happens slowly enough that local pressure
is not significantly affected: the molecule shortfall/oversupply is (almost) immediately
corrected by diffusion. This also means that any serious manipulation of oxygen demand at the
Earth's surface (over months or years) could create side-effects at the ozone layer. Namely,
Le Chatlier's principle suggests that to the extent the biosphere does not compensate for
oxygen semi-permanently binding out of the atmosphere, the ozone layer should thin slightly in
response. In reverse, a sustained release of oxygen into the atmosphere should cause the ozone
layer to thicken slightly in response.
Fourth, climate changes are generally measured on the surface of the Earth. Anything that
interferes with sunlight reaching the ground will shift heat from the surface of the Earth to
the corresponding region of the atmosphere.
- [MSNBC] Comparing occultations of Pluto (one from 1998(?), one from late August 2002)
demonstrates this. In this section of its orbit, Pluto is starting to leave its
aphelion. This reduces its absolute insolation (sunlight reaching Pluto)...causing substantial
condensation of Pluto's atmosphere. The net effect is that Pluto's upper atmosphere has cooled
at the August 2002 occultation compared to the prior one, reducing its thickness by a factor of
about five -- while Pluto's surface has actually increased in temperature. This is attributed
to more sunlight reaching Pluto's surface.
- [MSNBC/CBSNews/BBC/CNN] Western India is another demonstration. At least eighty
percent of the particulate matter in a diffuse cloud, three miles high, is from use of
biomass fuels (wood, dung, etc.) for cooking and heat. Unfortunately, physics does not give a
break for the renewable energy origin of this cloud: it also absorbs ten percent of the sunlight
that would otherwise reach the ground. Reflection into space is not measurable. [At least,
this is so for 2001 and 2002. In the absence of corrective action, it's going to be even more
efficient in the immediate future.] This shift of solar heating (air instead of ground) has
disrupted the monsoon rains in Western India in both 2001 and 2002, causing massive drought
and heat waves.
I maintain a medical link index on my page, The Arts of Xenobiology and Xenoecology
OMIM™ is a trademark of the National Center for Biotechnology Information.
Freon® is a registered trademark of du Pont de Nemours and Company.
Halon® is a registered trademark of Allied Corporation.
Opinions, comments, criticism, etc.? Let me know about it.
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